Types of Pollination
Which are the types of pollination who exist? Which are their differences?
Here you will find all the information that necesit¡s to know on the different types from pollination: direct, crusade, entom³fila, ornit³fila, zo³fila, anemophilous, hydrophilia and many classes more of pollination.
Classes of pollination of the plants
Considering the source from pollen, two great classes of pollination exist:
1. Direct pollination, autopolinizaci³n or self-fertilization. In this class of pollination, the pollen of anthers of a flower is transferred to the stigmata of the same flower. Additionally, the direct pollination or autopolinizaci³n can be subdivided in autogamia and geitogamia.
2. Crossed pollination. In this class of pollination, the pollen grains are transferred from the flower of a plant towards the flower of another plant. Following the type of agent pollenizer, the crossed pollination can be classified in biotic pollination (pollination entom³fila - insects, pollination ornit³fila - birds and pollination zo³fila - animal) and abiotic pollination (anemophilous pollination - by air or wind and pollination hidrofilia - by water).
Next, we will explain in detail the different forms to you from pollination, its main characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.
The artificial pollination is the one that takes place with intervention of the human being.
The pollination artificial manual or happens when the human being replaces to the nature throughout the pollination process and controls the reproduction. This decision can be taken by two reasons: if there is shortage of agents natural pollenizers in an agricultural culture, or if it is desired to avoid alterations in the specific features of a determined plant. In order to obtain it, the flowers pocket to avoid that other agents arrive, takes shelter pollen of the stamen and it moves towards the stigma, and soon they become to cover until the fertilization takes place.
The natural pollination is the one that takes place without intervention of the human being.
The cases of direct pollination, anemophily, hidrofilia and entomofilia consider examples of natural pollination. After years of evolution, the species have found the specific needs that they must to transport his pollen of natural form and thus to reproduce. All these typologies are developed naturally, without human intervention.
The direct pollination or autopolinizaci³n happens when the pollen grain only arrives from the stamen at the stigma of the same flower. To these species aut³gamas is denominated them. The advantage of this typology is that, in case of absence of agents external pollenizers, the species can reproduce equal. In addition, pollen waste practically does not exist, because the grains realise short distances. Some examples of plants aut³gamas are the peanut, the pea, the kidney bean and the handle.
The crossed pollination happens when pollen is transported from a plant to another one through an external vector (biotic or abiotic). Crossed pollination exists when insects take part (bees, butterflies, wasps), birds (hummingbirds or bats), water or wind.
This type of pollination is necessary when the organs masculine and feminine they are not in the same species, or when they appear at moments different from the growth. The sunflower, the almond tree and the melons are some of the many examples of species that need the crossed pollination to reproduce.
The biotic pollination is the one that carries out thanks to the intervensi³n of agents biotic pollenizers, such as insects, birds or animal.
The abiotic pollination is the one that carries out thanks to the intervensi³n of agents abiotic pollenizers, such as the wind (air) or the water.
Pollination entom³fila (insects)
The pollination entom³fila is more of one of the classes known pollination: realised by insects the pollenizers. The agents known pollenizers more are the bees, wasps, flies, moths, beetles and butterflies. The pollen grains that produce the species entom³filas usually are great and sticky, because they adhere to the body of the insect that is in charge of the pollination.
Pollination ornit³fila (birds)
The pollination ornit³fila is a class of crossed pollination that is carried out thanks to the intervention of the polinizadoras birds.
Pollination zo³fila (animal)
The pollination zo³fila is a type of crossed pollination that is carried out due to driving of animal pollenizers.
Anemophilous pollination (by air or wind)
The anemophilous plants, as the coniferous or the pulses for example, produce great amounts of pollen, because that is the only form in which they assure the pollination. In addition, it is possible to emphasize that the pollen of these plants is light and floats in the wind.
Pollination hydrophilia (by water)
Although it is not a mechanism of reproduction very spread, hidrofilia is used by some species that use the water to transport their pollen. In certain cases, the drops of rain can sprinkle and transfer grains towards the stigma of the own species. In others, the pollen of a flower can float until arriving at the feminine organ, or to move through water obstacles for would find with the stigmata.
In conclusion, the types of pollination are many who exist and who involve different agents. As it were mentioned previously, the direct pollination is realised by the same species, but in the crossed pollination insects (entomofilia), water (hidrofilia) or wind can take part (anemophily). It is possible to also remember that all these typologies of pollination are natural, but that also exists the artificial pollination, in that the human being takes part to control specific variables.