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Guide for the installation of biodiversity refuges

Introduction:

The intensification of agriculture has allowed to increase the yields by means of the adoption of new technologies and the greater use of consumptions. Nevertheless, during the last decades, also a diminution in the biodiversity in the land-ecosystems has been observed world-wide level.

In Argentina, in particular in the Pampan region, the changes associated with the agricultural intensification promoted the replacement of the pastures by annual cultures. Consequently, the rural landscapes were homogenised, which was in the loss of habitats for the wild life and the reduction of the biodiversity.

The less diverse biological systems are less stable and lasting in the time, and for this reason, they provide minor amount with ecosist©micos services to agriculture, in comparison with diverse biological systems.

The ecosist©micos services are the benefits that the nature offers the society (to see box A). The wild plant and animal presence in the land-ecosystems as much provides services to the atmosphere as to the producers. Between the many services that affect direct and indirectly the productivity levels
farming, they can be mentioned the pollination, necessary in the profit of the yields of many cultures as sunflower, the natural control of the plagues and weeds by means of the depredation, the parasitism and herbivor­a, ciclado of nutrients by microorganisms of the ground and the diminution of the erosion of the ground. By all this, the conservation of the spaces that provide habitats for the wild life contributes to maintain and to recover the ecological services in
the rural landscapes.

The farmers are taking conscience on the necessity to produce of viable way and with low environmental impact. At the moment, the 02 producers have the opportunity to contribute actively in the conservation of the biodiversity of the land-ecosystems, specifically, playing the role of guards of the services that the biodiversity provides the society. The effective performance of this new social roll of the farmers requires of a series of lineaments that guide the oriented actions to conserve the biodiversity in the rural landscapes. This guide was thought as a contribution that helps the producers to become guards of the rural landscapes, by means of the implementation and the effective handling of refuges of biodiversity in its fields.