Multifunctional landscapes in Camet: the wealth of fencings and ways
Within the framework of Syngenta Expo Cereals, realised in the Experimental Station of Camet, the project appeared multifunctional Landscapes one of the proposals on biodiversity including within the global strategy of the well-known company as The Good Growth Plan.
This program is developed in Argentina thanks to an agreement signed between Syngenta, investigators of the CONICET and Faculty of Agronomy of the GRAPE works in the development of the wild vegetation in the agricultural landscapes as biodiversity reservoir.
In an agricultural landscape, which predominates are the cultures that intercept radiation and they turn it into biomass. Simultaneously, this landscape has a scenic, aesthetic, ecological value and of recreation, reason why is defined it as multifunctional landscape. After years of intensive agriculture, the agricultural landscapes often lack the diversity and abundance of flowers that need the pollenizers, reason why it sets out to destine zones or strips in the edges of the lots, rural fencings, ways and other areas noncultivated for the development of flowers in spontaneous form that favor the presence of these insects, with a minimum agronomic handling. This project was born in Switzerland, in the European Union, and it extended to the United States, where it is subsidized to the farmers so that they adopt these strips. The objective in Argentina is to use a protocol of easy implementation that does not generate resistance at the time of being adopted nor complications in the traditional practices of cultures.
The Dr. Santiago Poggio, investigator of the CONICET and in charge of the proposal within the sample of Camet, explained: here we began this year with the first step to increase the biodiversity. We choose three sites in margins that are not used for culture, where it was stopped applying weed killers and making the habitual handling, allowing that settles the spontaneous flora. The objective is to know the composition species that are present and which are most abundant. This already we did it in campaign 2014/15 in the Experimental Station of Santa Isabel with significant results, since the flora was recovered and begun to have presence of greater amount of dicotiled³neas with flowers. Here we could register insects, many of which act as of pollenizers. The second step to follow, since already we did in the Experimental one of Santa Isabel, is to prove formulas of sowings of mixtures of certain seeds.
What it was possible to be determined in a preliminary evaluation is that the most important species in these strips correspond to the compound or aster¡ceas family of the sunflower as for example manzanilla and the lock Matricaria chamomilla and oler¡cea Sonchus. These plants are recognized as plants that provide flowers visited by insects pollenizers. Investigations tried that the sunflower and other aster¡ceas share an important part of wild or native bees, that are the main pollenizers, in addition to melfera Apis when there are beehives in the neighborhoods. The wild vegetation also attracts other pollenizers as the dipterous ones, of the same family of the flies, and includes many other vegetal species, as cen©ceo and thistles.
The importance of preserving free zones of applications:
A fencing, the agricultural lot, a way with their margins, a railroad or any other space, are considered elements of the landscape, that as a whole constitute these agricultural landscapes or multifunctional landscapes. At the time of changing the usual practices to fumigate the fencings and other areas noncultivated, a new element of the landscape is being introduced.
According to Santiago Poggio explained: the main profit of these investigations is to have demonstrated that most of the biodiversity that we want to conserve is in the margins of the cultures, associated to the fencings and the edges of the ways.
Within that biodiversity - that is all the set of species are functions as the pollination and the regulation of the insects plagues, that is fulfilled in these edges or you live, that contribute sites so that the insects nest, put eggs and they reproduce, in addition to being alternative food sources for these species. If we thought about the pollination of the sunflower, that lasts of 15 to 30 days, we see that it is not sufficient to preserve to the pollenizers, since in all a station of growth that it has from six to eight months it can have four five generations of the insect. The pollenizers find food in those margins that are not used by agriculture. Those sites work as a reservoir or a refuge for the insects that provide the service of pollination to the bordering culture, reason why is very important their handling.