Production and conservation in agroecosistemas by means of pollenizers
The Dr. Leonardo Galetto, Professor Titular Regular in the National University of Cordoba and Investigator of CONICET works with Multifunctional Landscapes in Argentina and counts how the development of the project is conceived. We tied through the office of Technological Entailment of CONICET that is suscripto an agreement with Syngenta to develop four projects of investigation in this thematic one. One of those projects is under my direction and includes several colleagues of CONICET and other Universities. The specific title of this project is Production and conservation in agroecosistemas, two faces of a same currency: diversity of pollenizers and agricultural production.
Many cultures that the man has developed and is useful depend in different measurement from the pollenizers to produce fruits and seeds. Even, many strategic cultures, still without pollenizers, produce their fruits and seeds, but with a greater diversity and frequency it renders would increase much more. Behind all the project it is the idea that to greater diversity of pollenizers, it has you render majors in the majority of the cultures with flowers that attract pollenizers.
This study was realised in the neighborhood of the cities of Cordoba, Rosario, Mar del Plata and Baha Blanca in different landscapes with different degree from amount of natural vegetation, that is another one of the factors that they analyzed. In those places one worked with soybean and sunflower in an ample territorial cover and we found other cultures as oilseed rape, cha, beans and kiwi, associated with pollenizers in which we could evaluate this same question. The autopoliniza soybean assumes that and that does not depend on the pollenizers. That is to say, if there are pollenizers in the land-ecosystem, they go very little to the flowers. Nevertheless, in some regions we found that they go and much. Even, when we isolated parcels with plants of the pollenizers the production fell. In sunflower, beans and cha passed the same. In the kiwi cultures pollination is even made manual with trained personnel to improve you render them, who is an expensive consumption by the value from manpower. Nevertheless, surroundings with biodiversity that contributed pollenizers would allow to improve you render them of this culture and to lower the production costs. In particular, experiments were made adding beehives to the culture that is economic for the producer and it sees that the bees do an efficient work consequently transferring pollen and increasing the production of the culture.
According to Galetto explains Is important to conserve our pollenizers from the perspective utilitarian that habitually has the man on the atmosphere. In addition, we could add that the value of the pollenizers extends to the conservation of all our natural systems with the associate biodiversity that also is would also have to be valued by the society from different perspective. For example, in that biodiversity is common good (aesthetic, as the national parks; economic potential, since it includes thousands of species not yet studied in his chemical metabolites with potential in the medecine development; cultural, because on that biodiversity it depends many groups of people who live in rural atmospheres; etc.) that must be preserved. Returning to the axis of the project, S.A. to evaluate the interaction between cultures and pollenizers it is possible to be tried that there is an increase of renders, ordering the territory the producers would benefit because they would also have in the same unit of culture greater number fruits and seeds and the pollenizers since the preservation of the biodiversity would be favored. For that reason the project has one double perspective: to show that the conservation is not antagonistic with the production and that a rational production has more yields in economic terms.
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The pollenizers include an ample diversity for Argentina. We have polinizadoras birds as the hummingbirds, nocturnal butterflies, moths that habitually we did not register, beetles that often conceptualizan themselves as plagues, flies and essentially bees. They are thousands of species in all the national territory, many of which still are not known for science because we have few taxonomists of insects and a great diversity to study. They are important for all the cultures. They go to the flowers of those cultures because they look for food. That food is pollen or nectar. When looking for food in the flowers transfers pollen and fertilization of ova and the later maturation of fruits and seeds is triggered. However, for some cultures they are fundamental because they have flowers with separated sexes as they can be the zapallos or the kiwi. That is to say, if pollenizers do not go does not transfer pollen and fruits do not form. In other cases the dependency is moderate as it can be the case of many fruit trees and in other cases he is slight, following the system of compatibility of the species and other factors, as it can be the soybean or sunflower.
Greater diversity of plants in edges of cultures (conceptualizadas plants can also be as weeds and native species) facilitates preservation of pollenizers because source constitutes of food indispensable so that the pollenizers live in a certain atmosphere (as us, the pollenizers need different nutrients to fulfill their vital cycle, those that they obtain from a diversity of nutritional sources), makes possible to find suitable sites to them their nest building.
To scale the project to thousands of hectares:
There are hundreds of studies anywhere in the world that demonstrate that a greater diversification of cultures in small parcels increases the production of foods and the food safety of the societies, makes possible a healthier atmosphere and with less agrot³xicos, increases the biodiversity in agroecosistemas and it really makes possible one better quality of life for the man. For that reason the emphasis of our project to have as it puts the ordering of the territory to produce more and to conserve the biodiversity at the same time, it concludes