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The importance of the pollination

The bees substantially increase the food production different as apples, pears and citruses, among others. different investigations realised in the world and tests taken ahead by specialists from the INTA in Argentina reaffirm the global statistics and indicate that more on 70% of the cultures, in average, it depends on the pollination to increase the yields.

The bees harness the production of a great amount of foods as apples, pears, citruses, almonds, bilberries, vegetables, sunflowers and many others. In fact, different investigations realised in the world and tests taken ahead by specialists from the INTA in Argentina 

 they reaffirm the global statistics and they indicate that more on 70% of the cultures, in average, it depends on the pollination to increase the yields. €œWithout the agents pollenizers, mainly the bees that are the main ones, would fall much the food production on world-wide scale€, it reflected Gerardo Gennari, veterinarian of the INTA Famaill¡ €“ Tucuman and coordinator of a specific project on the thematic one within the framework of the Apicultural National Program of the institute €“ Proapi-.

In the world, they are known around 20,000 species, whereas in Argentina some have been identified 1,100 species of wild bees, reunited in five families: Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae and Apidae.

Whenever a bee visits a plant wild or worked €“ employee of the pollination entom³fila-, both interact and this results in mutual benefit: the insect secures its sustenance €“ pollen and nectar and the plant, the concrete possibility to multiply, something that could not do by its own natural mechanisms or would be to him difficult. €œPollen represents the masculine part of the flower and, when the bee transfers it of flower in flower, it allows the fertilization of the ova that soon produce seeds and fruits€, the specialist explained. €œThere are vegetal species that are incompatible to be fertilized to themselves or it implies a complex process to them€, it added on the matter.

For example, the almonds tree depend in more on a 90% of the pollination by insects, whereas in citruses varies between 10 and 30%. €œWhenever there are insects, they are much more effective the pollination process and mean a positive impact in the production€, it indicated Gennari. €œIn sunflower seed plots, the pollination with bees is used to make the crossover between lines and to obtain the obtaining of hybrids€, it exemplified on the matter. 

On the other hand, tests in Tucuman demonstrated that the bilberry culture registers improvements of 40% in you render them when it is complemented with beehives in the lot. €œFor example if in average, one hectare of this production represents 1 million pesos, but 400,000 pesos of this value we must to synergy between the mel­feras bees and the native bees as the bumblebees, among others€, assured the specialist.

Aggregate of value

Luis Maldonado, specialist of the INTA Famaill¡ and coordinator of a specific project on aggregate of value in the Proapi, considered the present scene favorable to hold fast in this activity. €œThe market shows an increasing tendency by natural foods, without residues and the consumers are prepared to pay an additional value by products of high quality€, he argued.

In that sense, he emphasized the potential of the beekeeping to adapt to all the territories of

l country, to improve the productive schemes and to consolidate a diversification possibility, since in addition to honey, the bees make pollen, propolis and royal jelly.

€œThe following step is to use these products of high biological value as raw materials in processes of industrial transformation, which allows to extend the areas of use, the supply from products to the market and, doubtlessly, the value aggregate€, explained Maldonado.

In addition to honey, the bees make other products of high biological value as pollen, propolis and royal jelly.

Benefits for the health

In agreement with Maldonado, the honey is compound, to a large extent, by carbohydrates de in the form of simple sugars as glucose and fructose, of easy assimilation and with a great contribution of energy to muscles. In smaller amounts, also it owns organic minerals, acids, vitamins, enzymes, polyphenols and trace elements.

€œThe honey is an energy source found that improves the physical yield, especially in the sportsmen, it increases the resistance, it favors the recovery and it facilitates the repeated and prolonged efforts€, detailed the specialist. In the same way, it indicated to the antirust capacity of the propolises and its contribution to diminish €œthe action of the free radicals related to cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes€.

Production of pear and apple

Argentina annually produces 1.8 million tons of apple and pear. One of the factors that influence in the productivity of the harvest in addition to the irrigation, the nutrients and the plagues, is the pollination.

Dr Lucas Garibaldi Investigador of CONICET

Considering the importance of the good transport of pollen, Lucas Garibaldi, attached investigator of the CONICET in the Institute of Investigations in Natural Resources, Agroecology and Desarrollo Rural (IRNAD) of the Andean Headquarters of the National University of Negro River (UNRN) he studies, next to his equipment of investigation, the development of technologies of processes that they have as objective to change to the method of production of pears and apples in the High Valley of River Negro and Neuqu©n to obtain better amount and quality of those fruits through the optimization of the pollination.

€œWe studied how to increase the production without harming the environment, but we tried to go a little further on: how can the healthful atmospheres harness the production? In that sense, we are trying to foment the diversity of wild species in the small farms. We are not generating a new product in terms of the fruit. The apple is going to continue being an apple but we improved its quality through the pollination because this contributes to a contained major of sugars and better forms, than is something that in the market values much€, Garibaldi adds.

The engineer agronomist explains that they optimize the pollination through changes the handling of the beehives of the mel­fera bee and the incorporation of native bumblebees.

€œWe are evaluating different methods from handling of the mel­feras bees. The pear and the apple bloom early and many of the beehives take to the small farms but they do not have the appropriate health, a queen with suitable genetics nor the population size necessary to be able to have the force to pollinate correctly. They are necessary protocols of standardization than they would be the good beehives. We compare standardized traditional handling with and are seeing what combination of number and space disposition of beehives is necessary in the small farms€.

The project ties two productive sectors: the apicultural sector, that when installing the beehives in the fields obtain honey and, on the other hand, to the fruit sector that when receiving the beehives increases to the quality and amount of the apple production by one better pollination.

The information generated on the roll of the pollination in the quality of the cultures of apple and pear can be applied in other cultures. Three quarters of the cultivated species to a certain extent see beneficiaries by the action of insects pollenizers.

 

http://api-cultura.com/ SOURCE APICULTURAL PORTAL