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What is the pollination? Concept and definition

Of what it consists it is the pollination?

According to it defines the dictionary of Real Academia Espa±ola,

€œthe pollination is the process by means of which pollen arrives at the stigma of a flower€

In that place, the stigma, takes shape an essential act for the reproduction of the plants: the fertilization, that is to say, the sprouting of seeds and fruits. That grain of pollen, originating of the stamen - name with which it is known the masculine floral organ can arrive at the feminine floral organ of different ways: by the actions of the water or the wind (abiotic vectors), by insects, birds or some mammals (biotic vectors, which pollinate to around 80% of the flowers).

What is the pollination?

In other words,

The pollination is the process of transport of the pollen of a flower (a) towards another flower (b).

This transport of pollen is carried out from the stamen (masculine floral organs) of a flower towards the stigmata (feminine floral organs) of another flower, where soon it takes place the germination and fertilization, doing possible for production of seeds and fruits.

Definition of pollination

The pollination is the process through what pollen is transferred from the stamen (masculine floral organ) to the stigma (feminine floral organ). Of this form, one takes place the germination and ovum fertilization of the flower, which gives rise to the production of seeds and fruits.

Pollination and fertilization of the flowers

The pollination is the previous step to the fertilization of the flowers.

Pollination and agents pollenizers

All those beings and elements that take care to transfer pollen it knows them as agents or vectors pollenizers.

The agents pollenizers go to the flowers in search of a reward that can be food, refuge or heat and are attracted by chemical signals (scents) or lines of vision (colors, forms). Later, when rummaging between the reproductive organs of the flower, their bodies are impregnated of pollen that soon transfer involuntarily to other flowers, realising therefore the pollination.

On the other hand, the pollination can also take place thanks to the intervention of the man (artificial pollination) or, even, some plants realise the transference by their own means.

The bees, the most recognized

What are the pollenizers?

Within the order of the himen³pteros, we found the group of the bees, which they are known around 25,000 species. The peculiar thing (and what it turns them into the most active and recognized species in this process) is that all of them are almost enabled to participate in the pollination. On the other hand, the groups of the dipterous ones exist (diverse flies); coleopters (beetles); and the lepid³pteros (butterflies and moths, among others).

Although the route does not finalize here: also we must add the roll of some birds, bats and until other mammals. The birds lie down search flowers of red color, although they also visit yellow and orange flowers. On the other hand, according to estimations, one calculates that a quarter of the 1,240 species of bats that exist obtains foods of the flowers.

The flowers, as well, can also be classified according to their roll in the pollination. On the one hand, we have the denominated flowers generalist, that are adaptable to different types from agents pollenizers. On the other, the specialistic flowers are those that only can be pollinated by a specific type of these agents.

Which are the benefits of the pollination and why it is so necessary

The pollination is bidirectional, since it generates mutual benefits, as much for the plant as for the agent pollenizer. It is a process very valuable because it qualifies the reproduction of the flowers through the transference of pollen and balances the biodiversity, allowing that diverse plants and flowers under a same ecosystem coexist.

This process generates an effect dominated, a virtuous circle where the last benefitted link is the human beings: when improving the amount and diversity of pollenizers, the yield of the cultures gets to almost increase a 24%, according to esteem the FAO (the pollenizers affect to 35% of world-wide agricultural earth). This offers an essential support to the production of 87 of the main nourishing cultures of the world. Whichever better quality has that process pollenizer, better and more healthful they will be the foods.

The pollination must comprise of the terrestrial ecosystems - natural and artificial to as much allow the plants the production of seeds as of fruits, since it is a process that ties of direct way the wild ecosystems and the systems of producción agrícola. The species of flor­feras plants are not few that they require that a physical agent (water or wind, for example), an insect, animal or bird transports pollen them to be able to produce the seeds.

It is possible to emphasize that, in sites of agricultural expansion in which the pollination has not been guaranteed, it is possible to be observed how the landscape has been uniformizado and lost biodiversity is had. For this reason, the presence of agents pollenizers is key to advance towards a viable agriculture and to preserve the functions of the agricultural ecosystems.

As it is seen, the reasons are many that generate a world-wide preoccupation by the present diminution of the polinizadora population. By this, we invited to you to know Multifunctional Landscapes, a project of Syngenta already developed in several countries and with great results, that it looks for to preserve the biodiversity of pollenizers in agriculture at global level.