What is the pollination entom³fila? Concept and definition
Entomofilia is the task of pollen transport that realises the insects - the oldest category and also the biggest group of pollenizers from a flower towards another one.
The insects pollenizers are the main people in charge of the pollination within climates temperings, as he is the one of Argentina. Many of the plants of these climates reproduce thanks to the existence of the insects, that benefit as well from the process feeding itself on the nectar of the flowers.
Diversity of insects pollenizers
The agents pollenizers that participate in the pollination entom³fila can be of diverse types.
The bees (the most important pollenizer for the majority of the plants and ecosystems) the bumblebees, the ants and the wasps, among others, integrate the group of the himen³pteros. They prefer the flowers of yellow, violet or blue color, with smooth scents and great amounts of pollen and/or accessible nectar by the disposition of his buccal organs.
By their side, the coleopters (known as beetles commonly) own masticadoras jaws with much force. Not only they eat anthers, but also, sometimes, destroy diverse parts of the flower. As the flies, they are rather generalist in his visits to the flowers and, like the ants, lie down to pollinate by chance when they visit the flowers to feed itself. These insects act on flowers cantar³filas, that offer their pollen as reward by the accomplishment of the process. They are of robust character, green or white color, accessible and with a strong fragrance. Some examples are the magnoli¡ceas, the ranuncul¡ceas and the ninfe¡ceas.
Within the third group we found to the dipterous ones, whose representing major is the fly, the second agent more active pollenizer behind the bees. In these cases, the pollinated flowers one knows them as mi³filas and are of heterogenous character.
The preferences of the dipterous ones are clear: small, of color green purple and, free flowers of nectar, and inoloras. Also they can count on a strong deathly pale and rotten scent and to be of the interest of the flies necr³fagas. Although they are near 150,000 species, visitor the frequent ones are concentrated in three families: Syrphidae, Bombyliidae and Tachinidae. As far as the agricultural plants (the used ones to produce foods), one calculates that they exist around 100 dependent species of this type of pollination.
The lepid³pteros (butterflies and moths), group made up of around 300,000 species, are the fourth link. What type of flower usually prefers? They incline to the great flowers and with form of extended tube. The lepid³pteros arrive at the nectar that is located within the flower through its buccal equipment of sucking type, along with his espiritrompas that are coiled in spiral.
Within this immense group, species exist some that consumes nectar of the flowers (although that it does not imply that they also are fed on pollen), as the families of moths Sphingidae, Noctuidae and Geometridae and, in the families of butterflies, the Hesperiidae and Papilionidae. In the same way, we can find examples of lepid³pteros that only consume juice of some fruits or that, directly, stop feeding arrival the life on adult.
In summary, entomofilia is the carried out pollination by the insects, which are divided in four great groups, all with different characteristics: