What are the pollenizers?
The pollenizers, also known as agents pollenizers or vectors pollenizers, are those biotic or abiotic agents who are in charge to pollinate plants and flowers, doing possible the pollination process. That is to say, they are the ones in charge to transport pollen from the masculine floral organs towards the feminine floral organs.
Agents pollenizers: biotic and abiotic
The pollenizers are divided in two great groups. On the one hand are the agents abiotic pollenizers, as the air or the water, through which an anemophilous pollination or hydrophilia is realised, respectively. In these cases, pollen travels naturally in the wind or the water to find the feminine organ and to carry out the fertilization.
On the other hand, the agents exist biotic pollenizers, that can be animal insects or. In this case, they are the ones in charge to take the pollen from a flower to another one. In addition to collaborating with the reproduction of the plants, through this process the agents pollenizers obtain their own food. Some examples of biotic pollenizers are the bees, the butterflies, the bats, the hummingbirds, among others. Altogether, they are more than the 200 thousand animal species that carry out pollination tasks in the world.
Polinizadoras bees: queens of the pollination
The bees are the agents more known pollenizers, especially the melferas bees. In average, each bee visits daily around 7 thousand flowers, and all works in equipment to collaborate with the growth of their beehive.
This polinizadora species has some specific features that make maintain their effectiveness him:
- its body covered with hairs allows to gather grains of pollen of very simple way;
- in each trip, they only visit a species of flower, reason why its work becomes very specific;
- in the pollination they obtain his own food and they also contribute to which it needs its colony.
To take care of the bees and to guarantee propitious ecosystems for its communities are fundamental to maintain the biodiversity and to assure the survival many species.
Insects pollenizers of all type
Although the bees are most famous, other insects exist pollenizers that are fundamental for the reproduction of certain species. The wasps, butterflies, flies and bumblebees are member of this group, but also the beetles, the slimy ones and until the ants.
The tomato plants, for example, are the favourites of the bumblebees; whereas the mosquitos incline by some orchids and the beetles they feel attracted by the perfume of the magnolias. They exist more than 240 thousand species of plants with flowers, and all needs a vector pollenizer as these insects to reproduce.
It is not necessary to be able to fly for being a vector pollenizer. In the world many animal pollenizers exist that fulfill a fundamental roll in the reproduction of certain species. Some examples are the lemurs, the geckos, the opossums and some monkeys of rainy zones.
The lemur, for example, transports the pollen of the cactus of Madagascar for the native plants of the zone. The geckos, meanwhile, lick the nectar of the flowers of the trees and stick grains to their face and legs to transport it.
The pollination realised by birds is well-known also as ornitofilia. The more well-known species of polinizadora bird is the hummingbird, but others as suimangas, the creepers and the hermits exist.
Generally, the plants that need the birds to reproduce have strong colors, as red or yellow, and its tubular form allows that they store a great amount of nectar.
Bats pollenizers: a special case
The diurnal flowers attract the vectors pollenizers with their showy colors. But, what happens with the plants of nocturnal flowering? Here the bats enter the scene pollenizers, that feel attracted by certain sounds of high frequency which they realise the species to approach them them. The bombac¡ceas, mucunas and crescentias are only some examples of these plants, also called quiropter³filas.
In summary, a infinity of vectors exists pollenizers in the world. Although the bees are known, other species of insects, as the butterflies, wasps and beetles, also carry out this important task. Even, bats, hummingbirds and until lemurs collaborate so that the flowers can reproduce.