Multifunctional landscapes: how the first stages are developed
At the time of home to take this idea to the practice within lots of producers, questions arise about how the species within the strips evolve destined to preserve the biodiversity of insects and plants.
In order to clear some of these doubts, the Dr. Santiago Poggio, investigator of the CONICET, it responded to questions taking as reference a demonstrative parcel near Lezama and tests in experimental stations.
How we start up within a lot the parcels of Multifunctional Landscapes?
We work with a protocol of three steps. First it is to choose the place and to close it. What we do is to stop doing what we came doing with agriculture, that is to say cultivating, to apply to weed killers and insecticides, or fertilizers. The strips must have at least five meters in width by thirty to fifty meters in length. In addition, we tried to avoid all drift, in a windy day we do not have to realise applications since the wind can generate drift in the direction of the parcel, to avoid damages in the vegetation.
What other steps are necessary?
The second step is to leave vegetation grows it freely, but we must handle the grass so that they dominate less. The third step is to cut - the one or twice to the year vegetation to a height of approximately 20 cm. Nowadays any farming establishment has the tools to do it. In order to cut we can work with a tractor with a desmalezadora, or a desmalezadora manual with a two-stroke engine.
Which are the changes that are observed in these parcels with respect to places without preserving?
One of the things that we began to see is that it express the flora erroneously that often we called of weeds. These species, generally, have Euroasi¡tico origin, that is to say that come from Asia and Europe. The white clover, for example, can be seeded if the parcel were realised on a pasture, and contributes to nectar and pollen. In addition, usually they begin to appear species of the Api¡ceas family - the family of the carrot. Also usually they are observed other species, as for example crucferas of the family of colsa, false bishop's weed, characteristic by its white flowers, or Lotus. When stopping doing what we came doing with agriculture we see that the vegetation grows and it settles. We mainly have the species that we want to promote the biodiversity, if we are focused in the pollination function.
How evolve without intervention these do spaces?
Generally, they appear plants with flowers but it begins to dominate I graze. We are in a region of the world and Argentina where the pastures prevailed. Here in Pampas, before the arrival of Colonising and the arrival of the cow and the horse, this was a pasture, where the representation in the flora of dicotiled³neas grasses that are visited by insects was proportionally very small because the grass could arrive around a man. Then that vocation of pasture exists and, in this case, little attractive pulses for the pollenizers could predominate.
Does This happen in the pastures of the zone?
If we walked a pastoral lot we are going to see that it is the present biodiversity. The vegetation will have minor height by the load presence animal. That is, if we are in a humid zone, with aptitude of cattle use, much of the biodiversity that we want to protect is there. Then with this closing, we see that it express the pasture, but also the exotic species as the white clover are expressed and also some native species. Of the pastures of our region, we must value that the biodiversity is there also, in nonpremeditaded form.
If we walked by these shepherded lots or in the strips with it cuts we are going to see that it is going to be exposed more, for example, the white clover, or also some plants that have had flowers but were lost in the cut. Also we can see, possibly, wild daisy crisantemus sp-, as the escape of some garden. Many of the exotic species of Pampas and the world are escapes of species cultivated in gardens. They accidentally disperse by wind or inadvertently by people with seeds in the shoes, the clothes, or moving animal.
Do the producers know to identify these species?
The producer knows to identify the species that use or they cause a damage to him. If nowadays we do a survey with producers and we asked if they identify the black branch, surely almost the one hundred percent to them says that yes. The clovers identify them, and go to identify yuyo red and others.
This even happens with the agronomists since often it is relegated the identification of species to the productive needs of the day to day. At the moment this is a tactically important point. If manuals or accessible sites of Internet could take place from applications with photos, they would be of much utility for the producer.
There are other potential species, ligneous?
We are in the Pampan region that is a pasture, but the Pampan pasture has savannah vocation, which means that the trees that grow of spontaneous way they settle well. That we can see it in any zone where tapera is one. These taperas are left houses, where there was a bosquecito, and this asilvestr³ because it stopped having the own control of the prunings or the transit in the place, and we see for example that black acacia puts in the lots of direct sowing.
Is This equal in all the places?
If we go more towards Between Rivers, the paradise is a problem as invading species. If we still go more to the north, towards Tucuman, ligustro is a problem. Then we must handle it within the productive matrix, that is a pasture matrix where the main use is the cattle dealer. What could get to happen with this is that the grass dominates, that becomes a festucal or vegetation dominated by Lolium, for example. The Loliun when brosa of the dead plants begins to be disturbed - if they last only a year in the bank well produces very many seeds, which is renewing the pasture. Then our recommendation is to maintain it with you cut. Since we are not going to have animal in some parts, we recommended to cut at least once a year.
What would happen in that case?
In this way the vegetation observed at this time of the year spring aim, summer principles would be a little greener; summer spring would be favored the installation of cycle plants/and we would have more plants with flowers. In addition, they would begin to seem some native plants, that is to say, of the depression of the salty one, in this zone, that is generally smaller of size.
What differentiates it has between the cut by the mouth of the animal with offinished to regularity and the realised one with machinery?
The two are good options, in a pasture also it is observed and biodiversity is contributed. In handling more integral we would have to see how the pasturing, that chemical is used, including those of veterinary use is handled. For example, if they use anti-parasite to see which is trazabilidad of that product, that happens in bosta of the animal, that happens with the descomponedores of bosta, if that product has an impact on coleopters, etc.
It is possible to use the green matter of the cuts as food?
One of the things that can be done if it is chosen to cut the strip destined to preserve these flowerings, is to use as ration or food that vegetation, that can be cut and be coiled to provide as deferred ration. When removing the dead material can even be maintained a disturbance as far as the removal of vegetal biomass that is resembled the pasturing. Here, by the subject of the height of it cuts, would favor the crawling plants. That is to say, the plants that have prostrate oneself structures more are those than they are going to be favored.
How be transformed this can concept?
In the case of the parcels which we are doing it is to handle a part of the field to promote the flora that need the pollenizers.