WideDesktopWallpapers
  • Home
  • Notes
  • The myth of the €œapocalypse of the bees€

The myth of the €œapocalypse of the bees€

Professor Howard Minigh Profesor in the Universities of Virginia and Muchigan in EE.UU and adviser of Crop Life reflects on if the version of the collapse of the bees in the world from data and measurements is real on population of insects and production.

Howard Minigh

We would have to prohibit the automobiles by the probabilities that they have to hit? Or to stop selling analgesic in case somebody taking too many? If we followed the logic that applies the EU in the matter of regulation of pesticides, the answer would have to be a full one €œif€. Luckily, the legislators of the EU are average the tests and have concluded that the risk of driving vehicles and of taking analgesic is acceptable €“ any prohibition is not necessary. Nevertheless, pesticides receive a different treatment.

They take the class from insecticides that as much was in the news, the neonicotinoides, to which some blamed by problems of health of the bees. Didn't the European Union prohibit them maintaining that represented an unacceptable risk for the bees? Isn't That case closed? Good, no. The €œcase€ is very effective before the Court of Justice of the European Union (1), which recently listened to the oral arguments against the prohibition and at the moment it is deciding if the tests justify the precipitated measurement of the EU, which, by the way, was not
supported by 28 States Member of the EU in two occasions, leaving it European Commission acts in unilateral form. And other regulatory organizations, as the Agency of Environmental Protection of the United States (EPA, by its abbreviations in English) and the Australian Authority of Pesticides and Veterinary Medecines (APVMA, by its abbreviations in English) (2) is not following the example of Europe, since as there are more tests, it is clear
that the problems of health of the bees, and the roll that the neonicotinoides play, is not since they had been photographed originally.

The neonicotinoides were an innovating discovery of the 90 ', which to a great extent contributed environmental benefits by their use as €œtreatment of seeds€, or coating of seeds. As the plant grows, this coating is absorbed by the stems and the leaves, where the insects attack. For this reason, the neonicotinoides are highly selective. But they aren't undergoing the bees? http://www.widedesktopwallpapers.net/agentes-polinizadores/ is not only one critical part of our ecosystem, are a vital part for our agricultural production system. Then, we examine the facts.

First of all, such apocalypse of the bees does not exist. Never there was it. The amount of mel­feras bees was in increase from the entrance from the neonicotinoides in the market. From 1995, the statistics of the Organization of the United Nations for the Feeding and Agriculture show that the populations of bees surpass 10% in Europe, 8% in North America, 43% in South America, 43% in Asia, 19% in Africa. Generally it represents an increase of 26%. (3) recent Statistics of the Department of Agriculture of the United States (USDA, by its abbreviations in English) show that the colonies of bees in this country reached one raises of 22 years in 2016. If, there are problems in the matter of apicultural health that must be approached, but the majority of the authorities, including the European Commission, the Department of Agriculture of the United States (4) and the majority of the scientists specialized in bees, maintains that the Varroa acarus and the disease that this causes are the main causes that affect the health of the bees.

After those, are adverse the climatic conditions, the lack of genetic diversity (5), the loss of habitats for forrage (6) and the stress of the transcontinental services of pollination in regions with intensive pollination. The incorrect use of neonicotinoides can have an impact in the health of the bees and the experiments of laboratory in which they feed the force to the bees with insecticides to find injurious effects. 8 But the Agency of Environmental Protection of the United States, that this in account has taken, determined that the levels of residues in cultures with treatment of seeds are very below the injurious levels. (9 10 11 12). Then, this the experience of the real world. The mel­feras bees love oilseed rape and canola, almost universally dealt with neonicotinoides in many countries. And the mel­feras bees benefit from it. According to a scientific director of the APVMA, (14) the change generalized of the farmers towards canola it was accompanied by a exploci³n of populations of mel­feras bees there, of which some went of control and are so numerous that they became a plague for the native fauna.

Meanwhile, in Europe, the prohibition of the EU has taken to a reduction of the oilseed rape culture and it cost 510 million to him annual Euros to the farmers. (15) As far as the really wild bees, of which thousands of species exist, there is so no good information. What if we know, nevertheless, it aims at many factors that have impact on their health. The problems of health of the bumblebees that have been in the United States, for example, are attributed to the Nosemosis concerned by commercial pollenizers of greenhouse.
The massive Earth use changes with the years, and the climate change has affected to others. Meanwhile, an important study has demonstrated that the declivity of the wild bees was reverted in England in years 90, situation that coinicide with the introduction of the neonicotinoides in the market. (16) the bees are very important. By such reason, the industry dedicated to the protection of cultures are working to improve the communications between farmers and beekeepers and we have creadado programs to improve the habitat and the health of the bees. But we want to do the correct thing for these so important pollenizers, we needed to base the regulatory frame on tests of the real world.

Or, if we want to prohibit products on the basis of its potential to cause damage, perhaps would the EU have to follow with the automobiles and analgesic ones?

Original note:

http://www.science20.com/howard_minigh/the_myth_of_the_beepocalypse-225522

References:

[1] https://www.wsj.com/articles/bees-pesticides-and-the-activist-hive-1487187434

[2] http://www.thecre.com/oira_pd/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/neonicotinoids_overview_report_february_2014.pdf

[3] http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QA

[4] https://www.usda.gov/documents/ReportHoneyBeeHealth.pdf

[5] http://scientificbeekeeping.com/whats-happening-to-the-bees-part-4-the-genetic- consequences-of-domestication/

[6] https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080804100139.htm

[7] https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2016/12/06/honeybees-not-crisis-beekeepers/

[8] https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/02/06/gold-standard-assessing-neonicotinoids- field-bee-hive-studies-find-pesticides-not-major-source-of-health-issues/

[9] https://www.regulations.gov/contentStreamer?documentId=EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0865- 0173&contentType=pdf

[10] https://www.regulations.gov/contentStreamer?documentId=EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0865- 0173&contentType=pdf

[11] https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0844-0140

[12] https://www.regulations.gov/contentStreamer?documentId=EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0920- 0014&contentType=pdf

[13] http://www.canolacouncil.org/markets-stats/industry-overview/bees-and-canola-a-sweet- relationship/

[14] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.3631/epdf

[15] https://www.euroseeds.eu/system/files/publications/files/hffa_research_paper_neonics_inte rnet_protection.pdf

[16] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12121/abstract