WideDesktopWallpapers

WideDesktopWallpapers in agrosistemas of Spain

Favorable habitats in agrosistemas for insects pollenizers

They exist more than 20,000 species of bees at world-wide level, that can nidificar in the ground or the wood and instead of to form specialized colonies and to have a system of chaste as the mellifera Apis, are solitary bees. Report realised with the participation of group ETSIA of Madrid

Celeste Azpiazu Segovia agronomist

04c4984

Celeste Azpiazu Segovia

The importance of polinizadoras the solitary bees as of the plants is being recognized for relatively just a short time. As or it is explained in the guide of field of the pollenizers of Spain the form that they have to disperse the pollen from a plant to another one is the more efficient that as the mel­fera bee realises it Whereas the bee of the honey forms a ball of pollen in its back legs that dampens with nectar that has gathered previously, the pollen of the solitary bees is a dry pollen that transport in pilar structures of its body, or in the legs or the ventral zone of the abdomen. When dry being it is much more easy that it is come off his body thus and, to smaller number of visits, is possible to be achieved a most successful in the pollination of the plants and therefore, also of our cultures.

The alarm generalized by the reduction of the pollenizers began to be evident by the syndrome of the collapse of the beehives in the United States, where great agricultural extensions exist whose pollination came realising with beehives from mellifera Apis. Although although in the last decades the number of commercial beehives fell considerably, this species is far from disappearing, since it has a handling adapted by the beekeepers who year after year are in charge to maintain it, to adjust it and to reproduce it. On the other hand, it is important to emphasize here that around the third part of the cultures for the food production they need or they improve his yield and quality with the pollenizers. By these reasons, the attention on the conservation of pollenizers in agrosistemas must go not only towards the mel­fera bee, but also towards other wild pollenizers, with the purpose of diminishing the risk of dependency of an only species for the pollination of our cultures, view the vulnerability of the same if the populations available are scarce some year.

The shortage of species of plants with flowers in the zones of culture, by the loss of natural habitat, considers one of the main reasons that contribute locally to the diminution of wild bees. Thus, initiatives as the one of Operation Pollenizer that propose the creation of rich habitats in flowers become as interesting as essential. The floral margins serve as food source for the beneficial bees and other insects as natural enemies, providing to these resources beyond the time of flowering of the own culture.06340_g

With the purpose of search strategies to generate new habitats that allow the increase of pollenizers in the cultures of the zone center of Spain, the Group of Investigation of Integrated Handling of Plagues of the Polytechnical University of Madrid, takes to several years collaborating with the program Operation Pollenizer. Established the necessity to conserve the natural pollenizers and enemies in the agrarian systems, it is important to concentrate in the election of floral species with attractive potential for the beneficial insects considering that the solitary bees are generally more specific of one or few species of plants, in comparison with the mel­feras bees and the bumblebees that have generalist behaviors but. For that reason immediate goal in that we centered our collaboration with the project of Operation Pollenizer was to choose the most suitable species to comprise of the floral mixture in the zone center of the Iberian Peninsula.

In the election of the species, it is necessary to consider that the flowers attract the insects pollenizers through optical and chemical signals. For that reason to explain the associations between the plants and their pollenizers it is necessary to consider the color, the size, the form and the number of flowers (Gomez ET to., 2008), the aroma and the composition of the nectar; and the moment of the flowering. In addition other ecological and physiological characteristics of the plants are due to consider before being introduced in agrosistemas: they do not have to be invasive nor competitive, must be of easy handling and preferably native or naturalized, thus assuring his good adaptation to the ed¡ficas and climatic conditions of the zone, which will facilitate the handling of these vegetal species. In addition, their flowerings must be staggered with good floral cover.

The tried species were chosen on the basis of two criteria, on the one hand, that were of different botanical families to have different morphologic characteristics, with the purpose of attracting the greater amount of different species of pollenizers; and on the other, with fenol³gicas differences between species, with the purpose of obtaining the maximum floral cover during the greater possible time. Thus, the species studied for the floral mixture were: Coriandrum sativum, Diplotaxis sp., Borago officinalis, Calendula officinalis, Silene vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Vice sativa, damascena Nigella, verbenaca Salvia, Echium vulgare and marine Lobularia.

In the first place the best behavior was evaluated in emergency and adaptation of the species of the floral mixture based on the size of the seeds, being the species with a greater size those than most successful had. On the other hand, the attractive potential of the same studied, for it became weekly samplings from April until the end of August in the margins. In the samplings we told to the number of visits of pollenizers and the floral cover of each species of the floral mixture. Four species of which they composed the floral mixture emphasized to reach the majors values of cover (B. officinalis, C. officinalis, catholica C. sativum and D.) and therefore were most representative in the mixture. A right characteristic of the election of these four concrete vegetal species, is that they had a succession of the suitable flowering. Whereas D. catholica and C.sativum had their tips of flowering in spring, deB. oficinales officinalis and Cs. appeared in summer. Therefore, this staggered flowering, causes that floral resources are provided to attract beneficial pollenizers and other insects during two stations (spring and summer). But in addition these four species were those that majors visits of solitary bees by flower had, whereas in S. vulgaris, M. sativa, V. sativa, damascena N., verbenaca S., E. marine vulgare and L. as soon as visits were observed. The catholica paper of D. and C.sativum in the mixture is important, because in addition to attracting several species of bees, provide s­rfidos resources to and coleopters that in our zone of study appear in spring.

The mixture tried on in experimental parcels and commercial of melon and it was that in the experimental parcels, the visits of solitary bees to the melon flowers increased when there were floral margins in his edges. Therefore, we can conclude that the ecological infrastructure presence in the form of margins seeded with flowers of staggered flowering, increases to the number and diversity of pollenizers and other beneficial arthropods in agrosistemas.

References

Watered down, L. Or., Vi±uela, E., & Fereres, A. (2015). Guide of field of the pollenizers of Spain. Madrid: Mundi-Press.

Barbir, J., Azpiazu, C., Furrow drain-Perez, F.R., Fernandez-Quintanilla, C., & Gilded, J. (2016). Functionality of Selected Aromatic Lamiaceae in Attracting Pollinators in Spain Power station. Journal of Economic Entomology, tow004, 1-8. http://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tow004

Carri©, R.J.G., George, D.R., & W¤ckers, F.L. (2012). Floral Selection of resources to optimise conservation of agriculturally-functional insect groups. Journal of Insect Conservation, 16(4), 635-640. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-012-9508-x

Gomez, J.M., Bosch, J., Perfectti, F., Fernandez, J.D., Mohamed, A., & Camacho, J.P.M. (2008). Spatial variation in selection on corolls shape in local a generalist plant is promoted by the preference patterns of its pollinators. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 275(1648), 2241-2249. http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0512

Heil, M. (2011). Nectar €¯: generation, regulation and ecological functions. Trends in Plant Science, 16(4), 191-200. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2011.01.003

Hogg, B.N., Bugg, R.L., & Daane, K.M. (2011). Floral Attractiveness of common insectary and harvestable resources to beneficial insects. Biological Control, 56(1), 76-84. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2010.09.007

Miller, R., Owens, S.J., & R¸rslett, B. (2011). Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination. Optics & Laser Technology, 43(2), 282-294. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2008.12.018

Potts, S.G., Biesmeijer, J.C., Bommarco, R., Felicioli, A., Fischer, M., Jokinen, P.,€¦ Schweiger, Or. (2011). Developing for European conservation and mitigation tools pollination services: approaches of the STEP (Status and Trends of European Pollinators) project. Journal of Apicultural Research, 50(2), 152-164. http://doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.50.2.07

Tuell, J.K., Fiedler, A.K., Landis, D., & Isaacs, R. (2008). Visitation by Wild and Managed Bees (Hymenoptera €¯: Apoidea) to Eastern U.S. Native for Plants Use in Conservation Programs, (Kearns 1998), 707-718.

Winfree, R., Aguilar, R., V¡zquez, D.P., LeBuhn, G., & Aizen, M.A. (2009). To bees'responses puts-analysis of to anthropogenic disturbance. Ecology, 90(8), 2068-2076.